Urus curriculum

Conceived of in 2015, Urus is an expert yet somewhat idiosyncratic guide escorting the interested academic and general user through the domain of the production and reception of prints in Poland, Lithuania, and Prussia from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries. The database takes its name from the aurochs, or urus in Latin―a now extinct species of large wild cattle. The urus was described in Caesar’s Gallic Wars and mentioned in the Nibelungenlied, and subsequently acknowledged in many mediaeval and early modern encyclopaedias. However, in the Middle Ages, the aurochs was becoming rare, and by the sixteenth century its habitat was limited to remote corners of Europe: Prussia, Masovia, Lithuania, and Muscovy. As a consequence, pre-modern authors found the urus in several respects more intriguing than some animals of Africa, Asia, and even the Americas. Indeed, the zoology scholars lived in permanent want of reliable sources and tirelessly asked various informants in Eastern Europe to provide them depictions of the aurochs, which were often mixed up with the wisent―another big bovid typical of the local fauna.

Taking the aurochs―a large and robust, but also somewhat obscure and restive beast―as the model, the Urus database is conceived of as providing a powerful tool for contemporary print scholars, offering them insight into the Eastern European material. In particular, the database collects:

impressions (woodcuts, engravings, and etchings; single prints and illustrations for books and pamphlets) produced in Poland, Lithuania, or Prussia;

printing matrices (woodcut blocks and copperplates, both preserved and unpreserved) used by the local printmakers;

graphic prototypes and models for works created in Poland, Lithuania, or Prussia;

details of local artists, publishers, owners, collectors, or addressees of prints; and

depictions of local persons, places, events, plants, and, of course, animals.

These and other records are linked by way of their various properties and diverse relations, including iconography, chronology, geography, and interactions among images.

Between 2016 and 2019, when it was in its infancy, Urus attended what might be called an experimental nursery, operating within the framework of the research project Reframed Image: Reception of Prints in the Kingdom of Poland from the End of the Fifteenth to the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century, generously financed by the National Science Centre, Poland (no. 2015/17/B/HS2/02469). Subsequently, in 2019, Urus enrolled itself in primary school, also supported by the National Science Centre as part of the research project Matrix of Confusion: The Production of Woodcut Illustrations in Poland–Lithuania and Prussia until the Early Seventeenth Century (no. 2018/31/B/HS2/00533).

As of autumn 2022, Urus serves as a digital guide to the world of Eastern European early modern prints and printmaking while pursuing its own higher education career (see Urus plans). Urus blazes trails that are marked with respective colours (see Urus trails). Along the way, Urus grazes freely in diverse pastures of production and explores sometimes convoluted thickets of reception rather than methodically cultivating the soil within strictly defined rows and field boundaries. A faithful companion to its Caretakers, Urus roams the fields of printmaking alongside them, investigating with them assorted areas of its fields with varying degrees of curiosity and accuracy. It has inspected some realms quite comprehensively, and on some occasions has even ventured beyond its native regions, while in several corners of its habitat it has as yet left no footprints.

Trained staff members, tame it, and take care of its health and well-being, but they are unable to keep an eye on every single detail. Therefore, if you notice any inappropriate behaviour by this somewhat unruly beast, especially if you suspect Urus is misleading you, please let the Head Keeper know at g.jurkowlaniec@uw.edu.pl. Also, if you would like Urus to visit a certain spot or go down a particular path, you are invited to approach the Head Keeper with suggestions for the near future.

Nota bene:
Urus catalogues its content by, among other divisions, Things, Actors, Iconographies, and the like. Some names of Things, objects of Nature, Actors, Iconographies, and Places may be strikingly similar or even identical; however, each refers to a different kind of object. Most of these objects are mutually linked, but some are not yet, because Urus is currently working on some relationships (see Urus plans). For instance, there is a church in Cracow called “Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus (Wawel Cathedral)” which is, obviously, a work of architecture, also a Thing. This Thing is linked with the homonymous Place that indicates its geographical coordinates. Since Urus has collected some images that depict this very church, the Thing is also related to the Iconography called simply “Wawel Cathedral”. Moreover, there is an Actor, a corporation, whose official name is “Cracow Cathedral chapter”. The latter is not yet directly linked with the respective Place, but it is associated with a respective record of Iconography: the coat of arms (“Aaron”) that may be found on many images housed in the Urus database.

Things Trail (Material, inanimate objects, mostly works of art, both preserved and unpreserved)

By far the longest and most travelled route, with innumerable eye-catching exhibits and thought-provoking spots; generally easy to navigate, with very few twists that need extra attention.

The Things in the Urus database are man-made objects, in the most part (ca 66%) graphic impressions: single-sheet prints and book illustrations; printing matrices (ca 25%), both preserved and unpreserved; copies of illustrated books (ca 5%), both printed and handwritten; and also paintings, sculptures, parts of buildings, and other works that inspired prints, were inspired by graphic prototypes, or were represented on printed images.

Legend to the Things Table: The simplest access to the Things Table is through the respective gate on the main page.

By default, the Things Table is ordered by the most recently edited items and shows three columns: the Thing’s Label, the Type it represents (e.g. “printing: impression”, “painting”, etc.) and a thumbnail of the digital Image, if present in the database. Depending on your interests, you may adjust the table view by unhiding further columns. You may also filter Urus’s resources by various attributes of Things.

Nota bene:
There are neither separate columns nor filters for people or localities, as these objects have their own routes of Actors and Places. However, the Thing’s label typically comprises the Things’ name, given in bold, but also other elements, such as names of people or places.

For instance, if you enter “Urus” into the search box, you will receive all Things whose label contain the string “urus”, including, e.g., Hipocentaurus. One of these will be an Urus by David Kandel—specifically, an impression in a copy of one of the editions of Sebastian Münster’s Cosmography. A search for “Sebastian” in the Things Table will obviously return many depictions of St Sebastian and a portrait of Sebastian Münster, but also many impressions whose labels include the name of Sebastian Münster as an author of Cosmography. By the same token, a search for “Basel” in the Things Table will return some representations of basil, as they are titled “Baselicon” in their original contexts, but also many Things whose labels include the city of Basel as a place. However, if youe enter both "urus" and "basel" into the search box, you will receive a few Things whose labels include both respective strings.

Obviously, you will also find Sebastian Münster in the Actors Table, and the city of Basel on the Map of Places.

David Kandel (printmaker), Urus (Taurus sylvestris). In Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis Libri VI, Basel: Heinrich Petri (printer), January 1550 - March 1550 (BCzart, MNK, Cracow)

urus + basel in Things

Albrecht Dürer's workshop (printmaker), St Sebastian, (Albertina, Vienna)

Sebastian in Things Sebastian in Actors

Basil (Baselicon, Polski balsam, Basilgrim). In Hieronim Spiczyński, O Ziolach tutecznych y zamorskich y o mocy ich, Cracow: Helena Ungler (printer), 1542 (BN, Warsaw)

Basel in Things Basel in Places

Legend to Particular Things’ Cards: Each Thing has a number beginning with “T”, displayed on a respective card that provides detailed information on the object’s properties. At the same time, the card is a node linking the given Thing with various Actors, Places, Works, Interactions, or Iconographies (and occasionally also Narratives and Functional Contexts). Thus, the Thing’s card is also a spot where you may change course in the trail: e.g. from Things to Actors. You may also return to the Things Table by clicking “Things” in the header of any card from this domain.

Nota bene:
Many Things’ names have various additions in parentheses. Some additions, in particular those pertaining to book illustrations, render the original reading of the caption of a given image, especially if the identification of the represented object is not self-evident. Some addenda, in particular those pertaining to printing matrices, indicate the state and users of a given woodblock or copperplate.

The matrices, but also other Things that underwent any significant modification, are captured in their respective historical states. Each state is recorded as a separate object in the database, also has its own number and, consequently, a separate card. Such objects are, obviously, linked with those representing the previous or following states. In this way, it is possible to refer each impression back to the respective state of the matrix, and also to distinguish printers who used the one matrix in various states.

Depending on circumstances, some designs are recorded in one sole, more or less random impression, whereas others are documented in many impressions: e.g. in various copies of one edition of the same work. This is because the former are relevant as graphic prototypes for further works (and so a more or less random impression is given as an example), whereas the latter were collected for some noteworthy qualities of those particular impressions or of the book copies in which they are included.

Two Witnesses and the Beast (state II/III) (Severín, Melantrich, Szarfenberger), Part of Bible cycle (Lufft; Severin; Melantrich; Szarfenberger; Siebeneicher)

Two Witnesses and the Beast in Things

Nature Trail (Present taxonomy of biological organisms)

In preparation

Words Trail (Texts, both printed and handwritten; searchable table in preparation, content accessible through individual cards of Things, Actors, and Places)

Legend to Words Table: In preparation

Legend to Particular Words’ Cards: The gate to the Words Trail is not yet open. However, individual exhibits along this route are accessible through nodes along the Things, Actors, or Places Trails. In particular, each book copy is a Thing intrinsically connected with the domain of Words. Therefore, a card of each book copy provides access to the card of the respective literary work and its specific publications, as represented by the given copy.

For instance, the card of one of the copies of the Latin edition of Münster’s Cosmography gives you direct access to the card of the respective literary work. The header of the same card of the book copy gives you access to the respective edition (Publication) of Münster’s Cosmography where you will find out more about this particular edition.

Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis Libri VI, Basel: Heinrich Petri (printer), January 1550 - March 1550 (BCzart, MNK, Cracow)

Book copy in Things Literary work in Words Publication in Words

Actors Trail (Persons, groups, and corporations, both contemporary and historical)

A popular route, probably the easiest and the most intuitive. The gate on the main page gives you access to the table of Actors―both human and non-human―playing various roles in the process of production and reception of prints (artists, publishers, owners, collectors, or addressees of prints, not forgetting authors of literary works and persons depicted in printed images or represented via coats of arms).

Legend to Actors Table: By default, this table is ordered alphabetically by family names, with a few exceptions, such as kings and princes ordered by their first names and popes ordered by their papal names. The names are typically rendered in the form widespread in English (so: Albert of Prussia, not Albrecht of Prussia; Thomas Cajetan, not Tommaso De Vio), with various alternative readings provided, when appropriate.

Legend to Particular Actors’ Cards: Each Actor has a number beginning with “A”, displayed on a respective card that includes essential information and gives access to related Iconographies (in the most part coats of arms or likenesses), Things (not only created, but also owned by the Actor), literary Works or their specific Publications (not only produced by this Actor but also, e.g., dedicated to them), and also Mentions concerning this Actor (the latter relationships usually refer to the inscriptions on printing matrices or, occasionally, on other kinds of Things).

Philips Galle (printmaker), Stanisław Hozjusz , (GNM, Nuremberg)

Hozjusz in Actors Hozjusz in Iconographies via Things

Interactions Trail (Chains of relationships among images and between images and narratives; chart in preparation, content accessible through individual cards of Things)

The gate to the Interactions Trail is not yet open. However, particular exhibits along this route are accessible through nodes along the Things Trail. Recorded relationships between images are displayed on respective Thing cards, in section "In-Urus image-to-image interactions". On the card of Thing "A"

⇥ B

means that "A" influenced "B"

⇤ B

means that "B" influenced "A".

Legend to Interactions Chart: In preparation.

Albrecht Dürer (printmaker), Presentation of Christ in the Temple. In Benedictus Chelidonius, Epitome in divae parthenices Mariae historiam ab Alberto Durero Norico per figuras digestam cum versibus annexis Chelidoni, Nuremberg: Hieronymus Höltzel (printer), 1511 (SBB, Berlin)

Explore Interactions via Things

Iconographies Trail (Iconographic subjects, some related to Narratives and Functional Contexts; searchable table restricted to registered users, content accessible to all through individual cards of Things, Actors, and Places)

This exceptionally steep, narrow, and rocky trail has been pre-surfaced, but it is mostly only accessible to authorised personnel for now. Among the academic public, the Iconographes Table is available, restricted to registered users only. The exhibits on the Iconographies Trail, however, are accessible along the Things, Actors, and Places Trails.

Many cards of Actors and Places include references to related Iconographies, typically to respective coats of arms or likenesses.

More elaborate is the Iconographies section in the cards of Things, often (especially in book illustrations) divided into:

Iconography Description (sometimes collecting several motifs under one umbrella)

Narrative (referring to the associated story, which sometimes is indicative of, but sometimes, on the contrary, utterly inconsistent with the subject of the represented scene)

Functional Context (indicating a particular section or chapter, especially regarding works with standardised structure, such as the Bible or liturgical books)

Iconography in Context (a link distinguished by a flash sign, referring to all instances that share the same features: i.e. an identical selection of Iconographies combined with analogous Narratives and Functional Contexts).

An example is a scene of Warning Against False Prophets in one of the copies of the first edition of Mikołaj Rej’s postil. Unlike many other depictions of the same iconography, this particular design includes various interesting motifs, e.g. a defecating dragon with an indulgence letter, placed directly above the group of animal-headed Catholic hierarchs, evidently conceived to represent the false prophets. All these motifs have been collected under Iconography Description. The illustration whose main subject is the warning against false prophets accompanies the homonymous Narrative: the sermon elaborating on the respective pericope from the Gospel of Matthew (7:15–20). In the Christian churches, this pericope is recounted on the Eighth Sunday after Trinity, which, therefore, indicates the Functional Context of this particular illustration.

Each of the values collected in Iconography Description, Narrative, or Functional Context gives access to a suitably filtered table of Things related to the chosen iconography, narrative, or functional context. For example, if you select “Warning Against False Prophets” in Iconography Description, you will obtain a table of all scenes related to this Iconography, many included in postils and accompanying the respective narrative for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity, but some placed in other contexts, or lacking context altogether. By the same token, under “8th Sunday after Trinity” you will discover all instances of images related to this context acknowledged by Urus so far. Most of these will, as you may expect, represent the Warning Against False Prophets scene, but some will be generic scenes with Christ Explaining His Doctrine to the Apostles or, apparently misconceived, depictions of Christ Instructing the Disciples on Reconciliation.

Finally, the Iconography in Context link gives access to a filtered table of all Things showing the instances of images sharing all the features of the object under scrutiny.

Nota bene:
Urus extensively relies on, but also elaborates upon, the classification provided by Iconclass. In particular, Iconographies are ordered hierarchically and for the most part follow the Iconclass structure and labels. However, Urus has also simplified some labels and distinguished various motifs that are not covered by Iconclass (e.g. “Letter of indulgence”).

Selecting a given value of Iconography returns a filtered table of Things including both those that refer directly to this particular category, and those related to respective subcategories. For example, the category of “Catholic clergy” has many subcategories, one of them being “Pope”, which, in turn, has numerous subcategories referring to particular popes: e.g. “Gregory XIII”. Accordingly, if you click “Catholic clergy” while examining the card of the Warning Against False Prophets scene in Rej’s postil, you may be overwhelmed by a table collecting hundreds of entries. Most of these may be rather surprising, as not representing the Catholic clergy in general. However, the fact that they have been displayed to you means that each must include a motif, even an insignificant one, related to any of the innumerable subcategories of the Iconography “Catholic clergy”.

By the same token, if you wish to explore the iconography of “Starodub” on the card of the respective Place you will receive no representation of the locality as such, but several depictions of the narrower Iconography of the “Siege of Starodub”—i.e. a battle during the Lithuanian–Muscovite War of 1534–37. You will immediately see that these are identical woodcuts included in various copies of the 1564 edition of Marcin Bielski’s Chronicle and Marcin and Joachim Bielski’s Polish Chronicle printed in 1597.

Monogrammist I.C.B. (blockcutter, attr.), Warning Against False Prophets. In Mikołaj Rej, Świętych słow a spraw Pańskich ... Kronika, albo Postilla (var. B), Cracow: Maciej Wirzbięta (printer), 1 January 1556 - 5 January 1557 (BJ, Cracow)

Explore Iconographies via Things

Siege of Starodub. In Marcin Bielski, Kronika to iest Historia Swiata, Cracow: Mateusz Siebeneicher (printer), 1564 (BCzart, MNK, Cracow)

Starodub in Places Starodub in Iconographies via Things

Places Trail (Map and list of localities and narrower spots, e.g. specific buildings, both contemporary and historical)

By default, the gate to this trail opens the Map, which, however, also includes a search field where you may enter the name and see if it is known to Urus.

Legend to Map of Places: All Places are anchored in geographic coordinates and thus may be found on the Map, where they are represented by blue dots. The bigger ones collect multiple Places, which you may explore by zooming the map or just clicking on the chosen dot, sometimes repetitively—i.e. until you have reached a close-up that only collects the smallest dots distributed throughout a given area.

The small dots representing single Places function in a three-level hierarchy:

entire localities, which are represented by the dots placed in the centre of a given location (e.g. main square) and distinguished with an additional circle around them (e.g. Lviv)

narrower spots, typically buildings (e.g. Borys Voznytsky Lviv National Art Gallery)

(sometimes) a specific location within a given building (e.g. Cracow Envoys Hall in Wawel Castle).

Legend to Particular Places’ Cards: Each Place has a number beginning with “P”, displayed on a respective card that, by default, appears as the map’s side panel. However, if you wish to focus on the lists of objects related to the chosen location, you may easily hide the map.

Whenever appropriate, a Place card gives access to various pertinent Iconographies and below there is a section typically divided into two or three tabs:

Creation Place, which collects the lists of Things, Works, or Publications created in the given Place (typical of localities rather than specific buildings)

Storage Place, which collects the lists of Things stored in the given Place (typical of buildings or their specific parts rather than entire localities)

Related Places, which situates the object in the hierarchy of Places (indicating its parent and contained places, where applicable).

Nota bene:Regarding exceptionally highly networked Places, the system may need some time to refresh the view, as is the case of Cracow, which is linked to various Iconographies, Publications, and literary Works, but above all to thousands of Things, in particular woodblocks, produced therein.

Timelines Trail

In preparation

Urus plans

Currently, Urus is pursuing its own path of further education in the domains of Things, Actors, and Places, focusing on various ways of grouping Things, mutual relationships between Actors and Places, and also a distinction between contemporary and historical Places.

At the same time, Urus is intensively developing its own entry qualifications to higher education in the fields of Iconographies and Interactions. Concerning the former, Urus is now being trained in the hierarchies of iconographic subjects and their references to various narratives and contexts. Particular challenges Urus is currently coping with relate to coats of arms, emblems, and other devices. One group of problems arises out of the polyvalence of many motifs and a variety of entities sharing the same emblem (e.g. Lorraine cross). Another array of issues is tied up in the complexity of some heraldic devices (e.g. quarterly coats of arms, as in Giacomo Lauro, Communion of St Stanislaus Kostka and scenes from his life). Most importantly, a complex coat of arms is not regarded as a mere sum of individual motifs, but a separate Iconography, being, at the same time, a subcategory of all respective Iconographies:

Simultaneously, Urus elaborates on the systematics of Narratives and Functional Contexts. The point of departure for these developments are Narratives drawn from the Bible and Functional Contexts referring to particular Sundays or feasts of the liturgical year. In this domain, the feature at present facilitates various investigations concerning liturgical books or postils. Currently, Urus is working on how to apply this system to other kinds of accounts and diverse text genres.

With respect to the Interactions, Urus has recently considered several tools that might be used to represent chains of inspiration among works of visual arts, and also between images and narratives. Unfortunately, none of these external tools proved adequate for Urus needs. Urus intends, therefore, to develop an original chart of Interactions, although this will probably take some time.

Paradoxical as it may seem, Urus has not hitherto demonstrated sufficient expertise, at least not to its Head Keeper’s satisfaction, in the realm of Nature.

Likewise, Urus has not yet found an adequate way to represent various developments along one or more Timelines.

Regarding specific skills, Urus is able to export some datasets to .csv files, but this feature is only accessible on a very basic level for now. Urus does diligently note various alternative forms of proper names and titles but has not yet learned how to use this data while searching for specific objects. Finally, for the time being, like an ox tormented by stinging insects, Urus is incurably sensitive to diacritics.

Urus is a keen student who is extremely strongly motivated to develop its features, improve its skills, and overcome its impairments, but its further curriculum heavily depends on feedback from the community, along with, it goes without saying, funding.

Urus favourites

In its early years, Urus participated in many study trips that resulted in publications authored by various team members. Among the keepsakes of these excursions are, above all:

Since 2019, Urus has been continuing its explorations, focusing for the most part on woodcut illustrations produced in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The conclusions from these investigations are yet to be drawn. Meanwhile, however, Urus occasionally ventures into various more remote areas, and the tokens from these journeys are:

Holy Communion and Procession. In Martin Luther. Haußpostil, Nuremberg: Ulrich Neuber (printer), Johann vom Berg (printer), 1544 (BSB, Munich)

Explore in Things

See Grażyna Jurkowlaniec and Maciej Ptaszyński. 2020. “Anticlerical Motifs in the Illustrations of Martin Luther’s Hauspostille” Religions 11(12): 633

Livio Sanuto (designer), Giulio Sanuto (printmaker), Tabula Europae IIII. In Geografia di Claudio Tolomeo Alessandrino. Girolamo Ruscelli (translator), Venice: Melchior Sessa (heirs) (printer), 1599 (BnF, Paris)

Explore in Things

See Grażyna Jurkowlaniec. The Bison Trail through the Hercynian Forest: Names, Images, and Identities in Ptolemy’s Tabula Europae IV ad Münster’s Cosmographia, Viator 53/1(2022)

Bogusz, Marcin. 2022. “Wyposażenie graficzne Kroniki wszystkiego świata Marcina Bielskiego (1554, 1564). Pierwowzory, praktyka i strategia wydawnicza” Biuletyn Historii Sztuki 84(1), 5–41.

Jurkowlaniec, Grażyna. 2016. “An Encyclopaedia of the Catholic Faith dedicated to the Archbishop of Salzburg Mark Sittich von Hohenems: an unknown engraving by Natale Bonifacio and Gijsbert van Veen republished by Giacomo Lauro” Barockberichte 64, 66–78.

----- 2017. “Geneza i recepcja drzeworytów na kartach tytułowych kazań Lutra o sakramentach z 1519 roku” Rocznik Historii Sztuki 42: 21-42; expanded version in English: “Reused Matrices, Adopted Iconographies and Misleading Images: Woodcuts on the Title Pages of Luther's Early Sermons on the Sacraments” In Print Culture at the Crossroads The Book and Central Europe. Edited by Elizabeth Dillenburg, Howard Louthan, Drew B. Thomas. Leiden: Brill, 2021, pp. 215–244.

----- 2017. “Konflikt wartości, wspólnota tradycji i pragmatyka rzemiosła: szesnastowieczne wydania Biblii Lutra jako źródła ilustracji Biblii Leopolity” In Luteranizm w kulturze Pierwszej Rzeczypospolitej. Edited by Katarzyna Meller. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, pp. 323–345.

----- 2017. “Konfessionelle Bilder? Die Lutherbibel und die Bibelillustrationen des 16. Jahrhunderts in Polen” In Der Luthereffekt im östlichen Europa. Geschichte, Kultur, Erinnerung. Edited by Joachim Bahlcke, Beate Störtkuhl and Matthias Weber. Berlin: De Gruyter Oldenbourg, pp. 197–209; English version: “Confessional Images? The Luther Bible and Sixteenth-Century Biblical Illustrations in Poland“ In The Luther Effect in Eastern Europe: History, Culture, Memory. Edited by Joachim Bahlcke, Beate Störtkuhl and Matthias Weber. Berlin: DeGruyter Oldenbourg, 2017, pp. 197–209.

----- 2019. “Printed Images Crossing Borders: an Allegory of the Catholic Church and Its Dissemination in Late Sixteenth Century Europe” In Transregional Reformations. Crossing Borders in Early Modern Europe. Edited by Violet Soen, Alexander Soetaert, Johan Verbeckmoes and Wim François. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, pp. 205–241.

----- 2019. “Masterpieces, Altarpieces, and Devotional Prints: Close and Distant Encounters with Michelangelo's Vatican Pietà” Religions 10(5): 309.

----- 2020. “Apologia reformacji, pochwała tłumacza i epitafium korektora. Jeszcze jeden nieznany wiersz Andrzeja Trzecieskiego” Pamiętnik Literacki 2: 213-226 (with an annex by Tomasz Płóciennik).

----- 2020. “Early Engravings by Giacomo Lauro Published by Claudio Duchetti” Print Quarterly 37(1): 3–14.

----- 2020. “Postylle Arsatiusa Seehofera i Antona Corvinusa w przekładzie Eustachego Trepki. Addenda et corrigenda do badań nad początkami postyllografii w języku polskim” Terminus 22(1[54]): 1-17.

----- 2020. “Wilczy pasterze i smoczy ogon. Przestroga przed fałszywymi prorokami w postylli Mikołaja Reja” In Z historii kultury staropolskiej. Studia ofiarowane Urszuli Augustyniak. Edited by Agnieszka Bartoszewicz, Andrzej Karpiński, Maciej Ptaszyński and Andrzej Zakrzewski. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, pp. 204–219.

Jurkowlaniec, Grażyna and Magdalena Herman (eds). 2020. The Reception of the Printed Image in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Multiplied and Modified. New York: Routledge, 2020.

----- 2021. “Szesnastowieczny królewiecki druk w Herzog August Bibliothek w Wolfenbüttel: ilustracje, oprawa i właściciele” Biuletyn Historii Sztuki 83(2), 285–321.

Sikorska, Joanna. 2017. “’None of us is this Zeuxis Heracleotes’: The Illustrational Dilemmas of Cracow publishers” Ikonotheka 27: 171–186.

----- 2019. “Św. Jerzy z Wielkopolski. Meandry recepcji miedziorytu Albrechta Dürera” Biuletyn Historii Sztuki 81(1), 5–28; English version: “Saint George from Greater Poland: Complexities of the Reception of Albrecht Dürer’s Engraving” In The Reception of the Printed Image in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Multiplied and Modified. Edited by Grażyna Jurkowlaniec and Magdalena Herman. New York: Routledge, 2020, pp. 195–212.

----- 2020. “Obraz grafiki. Forma i funkcja rycin z perspektywy malarzy niderlandzkich XV i początku XVI wieku / The Image of the Print. The Form and Function of Graphic Art in the Eyes of Netherlandish Painters from the 15th and early 16th Century“ In Hans Memling i sztuka dewocji osobistej w Niderlandach w XV i początku XVI wieku. Edited by Marcin Kaleciński. Gdańsk 2020, pp. 123–133.

Urus staff

Head Keeper: Grażyna Jurkowlaniec (University of Warsaw), since 2016

Senior Caretakers: Marcin Bogusz (National Museum in Warsaw), since 2016; Magdalena Herman (University of Warsaw), since 2016; Wojciech Kordyzon (University of Warsaw), since 2020

Junior Caretakers: Anna Suchecka (University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin), since 2022; Martyna Osuch (University of Warsaw), since 2023; Dariusz Żyto (University of Warsaw), since 2023

Mechanics (and Veterinarians): Piotr Kasprzyk (Digital Competence Centre, University of Warsaw), since 2019; Tomasz Sporczyk (Digital Competence Centre, University of Warsaw), since 2019

Groomer: Aleksandra Fedorowicz-Jackowska, since 2016

Advisors: Joanna Sikorska (National Museum in Warsaw); Karolina Mroziewicz (University of Warsaw)

Security Guard: Dominik Purchała (Digital Competence Centre, University of Warsaw)

Past staff members: Piotr Kopszak (National Museum in Warsaw), mechanic 2016–2019; Agnieszka Dziki (University of Warsaw), caretaker 2019–2022; Konrad Morawski (University of Warsaw), caretaker 2019–2022; Marek Płuciniczak (University of Warsaw and National Museum in Warsaw), caretaker 2016–2019; Wojciech Milej (University of Warsaw), caretaker 2022–2023; Marta Pełszyk (University of Warsaw), caretaker 2023; Adam Perzyński (University of Warsaw), caretaker 2021–2023.